Differences Between Damask, Brocade, and Jacquard

Often times, uneducated individuals use the terms damask, brocade, and Jacquard interchangeably with one another. It can often confuse those who are unfamiliar with the world of fabrics. Jacquard is a decorative or woven pattern that is created by using a Jacquard attachment on a loom. The attachment resembles the punch card on a piano. It is purported to offer better versatility and fabric control for the operator of the loom. The Jacquard technique can be applied to a variety of fabrics, and it is commonly used on brocade and damask fabrics. It is commonly used in a variety of apparel and home goods, from tablecloths to bedding.

Brocade is defined as a lavishly decorated, shuttle woven fabric. It is primarily woven from silk; although, it is possible to find brocade constructed from a blend of silk and synthetic fibers. Often, it will be embroidered with gold or silver thread. Brocade can trace its origins back to India, where weaving is a traditional art form. It is typically woven on a loom, and it may or may not be woven using the Jacquard technique. It is also characterized by the manner in which the brocaded or broached parts of the fabric hang in loose groups or are clipped away. Although the scenes and patterns on brocade appear to have been embroidered, the scenes are actually woven into the fabric using advanced weaving techniques that involve manipulating the weft and weave of the fabric. The most common types of scenes depicted on brocade fabric are those of floral prints.

Damask, similarly to brocade, is a fabric that features woven scenes of floral patterns, intricate geometric designs, or simple scenes of domestic life. It may be woven of silk, wool, linen, cotton, or synthetic fibers. However, it is most commonly created from silk. It is primarily different from brocade in the fact that its woven fabric pattern is reversible, while that of brocade is not. Similarly, shorter weft patterns in damask allow for more subtle effects in the fabric to be created as it plays off of shadow and light. Damask weaves also contain a higher thread count than that of brocade. Double damask weaves are the highest quality of damask produced; however, it is also the most expensive.

The Best Countries to Work In Around the Globe

There are many countries that a person can work in if he or she wants to go somewhere other than his or her home country. The most popular countries in which to be an expatriate and work are the United States, France, and Switzerland. They all have much to offer for locals, for tourists, and for people who are only there for a while due to work commitments, and they are all great countries. Many people like to go to the United States because it's such a large and diverse country both in its people and in its geography.

There are deserts, mountains, forests, and large bodies of water, making it a beautiful place to enjoy. There is also a good minimum wage, many great companies, and a lot of places where the cost of living is relatively low. If you can find a company that will hire you to work in the United States and will help get you moved and settled, you should be able to have a great time as an expat in that country. The United States might not be for you, though, or you might not find a company that you really want to work for there. If that's the case, you should consider heading to France or Switzerland.

Many people think of the French people as being aloof, but most are actually warm and friendly with a good work ethic and a willingness to help others. You can learn a lot from them, and many fine companies have their homes there, or at least have branches there where you can work. That's a great choice for people from the UK who do not want to go really far from home. Another great choice for international jobs is Switzerland. It has a very strong economy and its treatment of workers overall is impressive.

It's also home to breathtaking scenery, so when you're not working you'll be able to take a look at the country that you're temporarily calling home and see what there is to see. All three of these countries have a lot to enjoy and there is so much to do in all of them that you'll never be bored. They also have great companies that you can work for, so you can make a decent living while exploring someplace new and learning about a new culture. It's like a great job and a holiday all at the same time, and you'll be richer for the experience.

Oh My – Traveling the Yellow Brick Road to Employment

This week I posted a researcher / admin job on Craigslist. Within 90 minutes I had 75 resumes. Here are 14 things that came to mind when reviewing responses to my listing:

  1. Put your employment objectives at the top of your resume but make them about serving your employer not about YOU. Employment is not about you, it's about an agreement to deliver services for $$.
  2. It's not a good idea to have typos in a resume. I rejected those immediately.
  3. Write in complete sentences and check your grammar and punctuation.
  4. Put a greeting with some info into the email. With 75 resumes there was no way in heck I was going to read a resume without an introduction.
  5. Remember to attach the resume.
  6. At least try to match your qualifications with the job description. Please.
  7. Do not write about your interest in learning to do the job. I need an assistant not an intern.
  8. Do not suggest you would love to work in my organization and know all about it because, you do not: It's Craig's List, I'm under cover!
  9. Include references.
  10. If you have a new job every three months, explain yourself.
  11. Respond early. I opened the emails in chronological order and some early responders where eminently qualified.
  12. Do not send a sexy seductive picture (yep, someone did that).
  13. Do not make me guess your abilities. There's too much competition. You have to make me want to hire you based on your qualifications.

It's tough to make the transition from one field of work to another (eg, retail to administration). Think about how your old / current job keep you the right skills for you new job and explain it in a cover letter. Be creative yet honest.

The Hopi and Their Jewelry

Hopi Silver Overlay Jewelry

The jewelry of the Hopi has a style distinct from that of the other Native Americans. The Hopi are known for the use of silver overlay, which utilizes a technique of fusing two layers of silver. The eye-catching and often elaborate design is on the top layer, while the bottom layers serves as a base.

It was not so long ago that the Hopi developed this technique. In fact the Hopi were not much into the making of silver. In their relative isolation on the northeastern Arizona high plains, or mesas, they were somewhat firewalled (so to speak) against external influences. Even their interaction with other Native Americans was limited.

Silversmithing of Native Americans

So while the Navajo learned and developed their silversmithing skills, a technique brought to the south-west of the American continent by the Spaniards, and which was then taken up by the Zuni, the Hopi were still practicing their own artistic heritage based on weaving and pottery. They were also adept at the making of kachina dolls, for which they deservedly remain renowned.

Time, of course, would not stand still, and even reliably isolated communities began to open up. Trading and commerce grew and the Hopi through their interaction with the Zuni exposed them to the craft of silver jewelry, at which the Zuni were now skilled. Lanyade, a Zuni, learned his silversmithing from the Navajo, and began to sell his silver jewelry. He travelled among the Hopi and Sikyatala became his student in 1898.

Sikyatala

Sikyatala is credited to be the first Hopi silversmith. It is reported that while Lanyade was at the Hopi reservation for four months, making and selling his silver jewelry pieces, Sikyatala was studiously observing and learning from the master at close range.

Sikyatala then began to use the technique of making silver jewelry. Other Hopi also began to follow and emulate the work of Sikyatala. In time the Hopi developed their own style, that of using overlay silver.

Hopi Silversmiths Paul Saufie and Fred Kabote

This technique did not so much evolve as was created by the Hopi silversmiths Paul Saufkie and Fred Kabote who were involved in a program at the Museum of Northern Arizona in 1938. After World War II the Hopi Guild was formed to encourage a program of silversmith training .

The designs of the silver overlay jewelry of the Hopi were also unique in that they adapted designs from the old broken pottery pieces of the 15th and 16th centuries. New motifs were also incorporated by the Hopi Guild, including kachina symbols.

The cross-currents in Native American jewelry nowdays mean that there are cross-influences as well. And different styles from the different currents may well find themselves evident in any piece of modern American Native jewelry.

But the fascinating development of Native American silversmiths and their crafts, in their different streams of artistic design, does not entirely obscure the original creativity. The silver overlay technique was the creation of the Hopi, even if it may now be employed by others.

Michael Kabotie

In ending, it may be noted that the work of Fred Kabote was continued by his son Michael Kabote (also spelled 'Kabotie'). Michael Kabotie recently passed away at the age of 67. He was a trail-blazer in the Native American fine arts movement, both as a Hopi artist and jeweler. His paintings were well-received, depicting traditional Hopi life. For a number of years, he also tapped the Hopi overlay technique at the Idyllwild Arts program in Southern California.